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Clearly this has been considered unethical in the modern era yet without knowing the natural history of the untreated disease it becomes impossible to judge the impact of treatment. The modern era can be considered to start in the early 19 th century with the innovations in anaesthesia and antisepsis that within a few decades allowed for the introduction of the Halsted radical mastectomy. Since then we have had to deduce the natural history of disease in retrospect.
The critical issue in deciding whether to recommend breast cancer screening for women in their forties is to determine whether potential benefits are substantially greater than potential harms. This relative risk reduction translates into an absolute risk reduction of women whose lives are extended from screening 1, women in their forties annually for 10 years i. The absolute benefit of screening increases with age. Evidence about potential harms is less well established, but it is compelling that there are times as many false positive as true positive mammograms depending on the patient's ageand that at least some of the women with false positive mammograms have ongoing psychological distress as a result.
Despite the appeal of early detection of breast cancer, uncertainty about the value of mammography continues. The initiation of a public screening program in Norway allowed them to compare biopsy-confirmed invasive tumors in women receiving a single mammogram between the ages of 50 and 64 years, with the cumulative number of tumors in a group of women aged 50 to 64 years who had been screened on 3 occasions. Because a variety of risk factors were similar for the 2 groups, the cumulative tumor rate in the multiple screen group was expected to be the same as the rate in the age-matched single screen group.
In recent years there has been a growing acknowledgement that many breast cancers that are diagnosed and treated would never have posed a threat to a woman's health or well-being during her lifetime. Such cancers are indolent or slow-growing, but when detected by breast cancer screening, cannot be distinguished from cancers that could be life-threatening. Such cancers are often referred to as over-diagnosed.
Early-stage breast cancer could soon be caught using a blood test. The simple test could replace invasive biopsies as the first port of call for diagnosing the disease. The test is based around the isotopic composition of the trace metal zinc. Different forms of the element zinc are known as isotopes, based on their weight.
Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare and heterogeneous entity. As a result, there is sparse data in literature relating to its presentation and management. We aim to report the natural behaviour of metaplastic squamous cell breast cancer which was picked up on screening mammogram.
AIM : To investigate the age differences in the risk factors, clinicopathological characteristics and patterns of treatment of female breast cancer patients. Among them, clinicopathological data and patterns of treatment were further collected from medical records of patients with invasive breast cancers. RESULTS : Analysis on the sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to risk factors were performed on women with primary breast cancer and the results revealed that younger patients were more likely to have unhealthy lifestyles; these include a lack of exercise